Practical approaches and good practices in return and reintegration to Afghanistan and Pakistan: EMN Inform

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Afghanistan and Pakistan are amongst the top 5 countries of origin of third-country nationals (TCNs) subject to a return decision[1].

In 2013, around 14,700 Afghans and 26,000 Pakistan nationals were issued with a return decision, representing respectively 3.7% and 5.8% of the total number of migrants ordered to leave the EU territory.

Key points to note:

  • In 2013, 3,500 Afghan and 12,400 Pakistan nationals were effectively returned to a third-country.  As a result, the proportion of the number of returns effected as compared to the number of return decisions issued in 2013 is 21% for Afghan and 48% for Pakistan nationals while overall this is 42% for all nationalities.
  • Many factors influence return figures, including the influence/effect of programmes encouraging voluntary return and facilitating reintegration.
  • A majority of Member States support the return of Afghan and Pakistan nationals under their general Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR) programs. Only a few Member States have developed tailored reintegration programmes to Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • The provision of information about AVR works well; TCNs are well informed about the possibilities of AVR to Afghanistan/Pakistan. However, the decision to return to these countries is dependent on other (broader) factors, e.g. economic and security situation in the third country.
  • The monitoring of return to Afghanistan and Pakistan is often a challenge and more efforts could be undertaken to analyse the data collected and provide the most appropriate assistance.
  • The number of EU Member States’ joint reintegration projects to Afghanistan and Pakistan is increasing. Such projects should improve both the cost-efficiency and the quality of the reintegration support provided to migrants.

[1] With Albania (20,410), Morocco (29,155) and Algeria (17,550) also amongst the top 5.

Author(s):European Migration Network
Publisher:Directorate General Migration and Home Affairs, European Commission
Publication Date:09 Feb 2015
Geographic Focus:European Union and Norway; Afghanistan; Pakistan
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