This EMN Inform summarises the main findings of the EMN Main Study on Good practices in the return and reintegration of irregular migrants: Member States’ entry bans policy & use of readmission agreements between Member States and third countries.
Key points to note include:
- The Return Directive has resulted in an increased harmonised legal framework on entry bans at national level.
Entry bans may be applied as a coercive policy measure to serve as a deterrent for irregular third-country nationals, and as an “incentive” to encourage voluntary return, through their withdrawal/suspension where voluntary return has taken place in compliance with the return decision.
Limited evaluation as well as limited conclusive statistical evidence makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions on the effectiveness of entry bans; however, the Study identifies both emerging good practices in terms of cooperation between Member States when enforcing entry bans, and some practical cooperation problems limiting their effectiveness.
Where data is available, the Study shows that EURAs are generally effective return tools in relation to the share of readmission applications receiving a positive reply, and overall, no systematic problems in cooperating with third countries under EURAs were identified in the Study.
The majority of (Member) States have also signed national bilateral admission agreements as well as certain non-standard agreements.
Practical implementation obstacles include insufficient cooperation from third countries and delays in receiving replies on readmission requests.
Synergies amongst the various tools at their disposal to bring about better outcomes for sustainable return have been developed in some Member States, but are at the early stages of development.
The Study was based on contributions from EMN National Contact Points in 24 Member States’, plus Norway, collected via common specifications to ensure comparability.
The Study was based on contributions from 24 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland,Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, plus Norway (25 countries in total).