Between July 2020 and January 2021, the EMN, in collaboration with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography (KCMD), developed and published a series of five EMN OECD Informs on the impact of COVID-19 on migration. This Umbrella Inform provides an update on these impacts as at 31 December 2020, closes earlier information gaps, summarises and analyses the key findings across the earlier Informs, and identifies the main challenges and learning points in responding to the pandemic at national level. It is a joint effort of the EMN and OECD, in cooperation with KCMD, the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) and includes a section from EASO exploring the impact of COVID-19 on asylum and international protection. Remittances are not covered here, but detailed information on the consequences of pandemic remittances and the companies providing those services can be found in the EMN OECD Inform from December 2020.
The Umbrella Inform covers the period March – December 2020. It does not reflect on incremental policy developments during this period and indicates only the general period of introduction of policy changes rather than specific dates. Rather, it provides the updated position as at 31 December 2020 across the following topics. Residence permits, entry conditions, unemployment and labour market needs (Chapter 2); International protection (Chapter 3); International students (Chapter 4); Voluntary and forced return (Chapter 5); and the final chapter (Chapter 6) presents a number of conclusions,and on the basis of the information collected,reflects on the future outlook.
This Umbrella Inform builds on the findings from the series of EMN OECD Informs on the impact of COVID-19, published in 2020 and 2021, complemented by additional data collected by different actors.
How has the pandemic impacted EU and OECD countries in the migration area: EMN Flash #16
For more information:
EMN-OECD joint Inform series:
The Impact of COVID-19 in the migration area in EU and OECD countries: EMN and OECD Umbrella Inform
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on voluntary and forced return procedures and policy responses: EMN and OECD Inform #5
Impact of Covid-19 on remittances in EU and OECD countries: EMN and OECD Inform #4
Maintaining labour migration in essential sectors in times of pandemic: EMN and OECD Inform #3
Impact of COVID-19 on international students in EU and OECD Member States: EMN and OECD Inform #2
EU and OECD Member States responses to managing residence permits and migrant unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic: EMN and OECD Inform #1